Also, in his opinion, family and property were the chief sources of disunity and social tension. It is aimed at freeing the ruling classes, i.e. Plato strongly believed that an economic division between the citizens of a state is the most dangerous political condition. So, these two classes must be free of any tension to run the administration. For Plato, the visible world is a shadow of world of ideas, the Real Reality existing beyond the time and space, the progenitor of the world of objects. Merita ; Introduction. communism for his ideal state. No parent is to know his own child or any child his parent.” All the children are brothers and sisters and all adults are their mothers and fathers. ffi~IVERSITY . In Marx’s communism labor class is the wheal of the state. The Collapse of Communism 8. Out of ignorance of genetic and biological laws, he links the restrained and regulated sexuality with one’s moral development that is not product of the biological accident of birth. Marx. Plato’s Theory of Communism Plato’s theory of communism was certainly a corollary of his conception of justice. to serve the people by way of maintaining the class-divided social order. .” And henceforth he moves to argue the indispensable need to abolish the institution of family itself for the ruling classes. Plato’s Theory of Communism (Including 2 Forms of Communism)! In the stateless society, the management of the people shall be replaced by management of things. Some authors have stated that Plato's political philosophy was the earliest form of Communism. Plato’s approach was mainly concerned with one factor of produc­tion, that is, property that has to be socialized. The private ownership of property by ruling classes is to be replaced by their collective ownership of property and collective domination over the producing masses under the direction of philosopher king with the coercive apparatus of the armed auxiliaries. The nomenclature, ‘communism of wives’ does not suite the content that is not about arrangement of ‘wives’ among the ‘husbands’ but abolition of the institution of family itself for the Guardians. This belief was mainly due to the widespread and frank opinions expressed by the Greeks that economic motives are very influential in determining political action and political affiliations. Let us conclude this discussion before going into their merits and demerits with a long quotation from the Republic (book V): “As soon as children are born, they will be taken by officers appointed for the purpose, who may be men or women or both, because offices are to be shared by both the sexes. Content Filtrations 6. The Ideal state would need future guardians. Socialism isn’t the new new thing. The children of inferior parents and any children of the rest that are defective are hidden away in some appropriate manner that must be kept secret.” It is to be noted that infanticide of defective children was practiced at Sparta. Plato’s theory of communism was certainly a corollary of his conception of justice. In India the supposedly ascetic priests enjoyed superior status in deciding the socio-political code of conduct. Karl Popper wrote Open Society and its Enemies (Vol. Your Thoughts? He believed that without communism there would be clash of ideas and interests between reason and appetite. Thus, Plato’s communism of wives provided social, political and psychological bases for the ideal state. Plato: The First Socialist. AUGUST, 1942 . The maintenance of family needs wealth implying that the involvements of the guardians in economic activities interfering into the realm of economic producers deviating from their political duties in violation of the principle of justice. Plato’s communism aimed at making the Greek city state, a self sufficient properly governed unit. According to Plato, truth and moralities are eternal and objective but Marxism does not recognize any final truth, the concept of which varies according to time and space. The aim of his communism was to consolidate the class rule by keeping the members of the ruling class united by freeing/depriving them of the private family and property that has been discussed above. Plato was equally vehement about the institution of marriage and opined that family affections directed towards a particular persons, as another potent rival to the state in competing for the loyalty of rulers. The improvement of the race demands a more controlled and a more selective type of union. There is no privacy and no scope of individual men and women forming any regular or permanent bond. Abolition of the institutions of marriage and family is essential for the moral development of guardians. He strongly opined that family and property are always impediments not only to philosopher king, but also to a commoner in his discharge of duties. the ideal state where the philosophers, selflessly, rule over the masses involved in the material production of the society, with the help of the armed auxiliaries. By Kyle Smith. Plato’s communism is ascetic and aristocratic simultaneously. The longings for family and property make the rulers self-seeking, indulgent, greedy and hence corrupt that is a diversion from and impediment to appropriate performance of their duty to rule not in their own but in public interest. -Communism will abolish classes. Plato based his ideal state on the concept of communism. Marxian communism seeks to end the ownership and the control of the ruling classes over the means of production and overall economic activities and transfer it the producers, the working class. Plato’s communism does not want total transformation of society. Plato’s theory of communism is just opposite to Marxian theory of communism that seeks to eventually establish a classless and hence stateless society, as according to it the state is instrument of the domination in the hands of ruling classes. Another problem, a. rather widely discussed, is the apparent advocacy of divorce, in flat contradiction to the principles of the Saint's faith and hi: later actions. Devotion to their civic duties admits no private rival. Free Speech: Plato and The Communist Manifesto. Plato believes in the eternity of the reality, Marx, like Heraclitus, believes in the eternity of the change; and historically proves that continuous, evolutionary, quantitative changes, in course of time mature into revolutionary qualitative changes, leading to overall transformation of economic, political and intellectual structures. He stated that the proper age for begetting children women should be between the age of 20 and 40 and men between 25 and 55 because at this time, the physical and intellectual vigor is more. Plato was writing in a time and space characterized by slavery in democratic Athens aimed at creation of ‘meritocracy’ based classes and at replacing the democratic governance with an Ideal State ruled by the wise (and only few are endowed with the ability to it) with the help of its armed auxiliaries. He believed that without communism there would be clash of ideas and interests between reason and appetite. Copyright 10. He believed that the ruling and military classes have no concern with appetite as they represent reason and courage respectively. The Role of Karl Marx 4. B. Philosophically, Plato’s theory is based on spiritual idealist principles consequent to his basic assumptions about eternity, transcendence and the trilogy of the soul, whereas Marx’s is based on the principles of dialectical materialism linked with historical materialism that could be empirically verified. Plato contemplates the rule of philosopher king and Marx termed philosophy as ideology and reserves more respectable term science for his critique of the political economy. To this, Plato denied that the state serve half of its potential guardians. After through education and elimination tests, by way of meritocracy, Plato talks about taking to state crèche and state nursery only the legitimate children born out of state sponsored and manipulated temporary marriages. Plato’s communism is of two forms, viz., the abolition of private property, which included house, land, money, etc., and the second, the abolition of family, through the abolition of these two, Plato attempted to create a new social order wherein the ruling class surrendered both family and private property and embraced a system of communism. So, only the guardians were deprived of property. [4] When used in this sense, the word form is often capitalized. The moral values are created and perpetuated in the class interest of the ruling classes. -Communism will abolish the division of labor. Communism has common roots with socialism. The main subjects taught were eloquence and oratory and the demagogues were influence the public opinion. Classical period. Thus, Plato’s communism was ascetic in character. Keywords: Capitalism, Civil society, Communism, Community, Economic management, Equality, Freedom, Lenin, Marx, Social democracy, Socialism. Corruption was quite rampant as is clear from the fact that Plato and other pupils of Socrates had bribed the civil and jail officials to facilitate his escape from the jail but Socrates had refused to. 1, The Spell of Plato & Vol.2, The Spell of Marx) in 1945, in the aftermath of the 2nd World War and emergence of the USSR as world power representing an alternative model of economic development and governance to capitalism. What Is the Alternative Farming and Food System That India Needs? “They would have to invent some ingenious system of drawing lots, so that at each pairing off the inferior would blame his luck not the Rulers.” Plato undermines the emotive and impulsive aspects of human personality and subordinates them to rational aspects and considers sex not as a human need but only a instrument to produce future guardians. As has been already mentioned, the communism applies for only ruling classes and not for producing masses. There were no public educational institutions. Plato deprived them of all valuables such as gold and silver, and were told that the diviner metal is within them, and therefore there is no need for any ornaments as it might pollute the divine thoughts. Plato’s communism is based on the premise that property, family instincts and private interests would distract man’s attention from his obligations to the community. from the perspective of the circumstances of his own choice and not in the given circumstances, transmitted from the past. The rulers must not waste time and energy in familial responsibility but devote themselves in the invention of the truth, i.e. There is no scheme of upward mobility of the lower classes, though there is scope for downward mobility, as we have seen above that offspring of inferior couples and those born by unauthorized coupling are secretly thrust over the producing community, if not abandoned or buried in some remote corner. They shall live in the state managed barracks and eat in the common mess. They were expected to dine at common tables and live in common barracks, which were always open. And no one else but Rulers must know how all this is being effected; otherwise out herd of guardians may become rebellious.” Rest will be “thrust out among the artisans and farmers”. Further, the guardians, instead of caring for the welfare of their progeny, would thrive for the welfare of all. The producing class remains intact. Family is hurdle for women’s equal education and function as guardians and hence an obstruction in their emancipation. -Communism will be ruled democratically by the masses. The history of fascist ideology is long and draws on many sources. That is not so. Difference between Plato and Marx's Concept of Communism Concept. First argument Family, according to him is linked with property and is equally distractive and corrupting as property. Plato’s theory of communism is based on his belief of corrupting influences of family and property over people holding the public offices that remains a historic fact and continuing norm. Content Guidelines 2. A state , says Plato , is a man ‘writ’ large against the sky.The elements that make up a city correspond to … In the classical, Marxistdefinition (G.A. Plato in a way pleads for women’s emancipation from patriarchal family on the ground of their equality with men in all aspects if given the same conditions of bringing up, education and opportunities. Send articles as PDF to. Q) Critically examine Plato's theory of Communism of wives and property as propounded in the 'Republic' The sinner men of this life are born as women in the other. The example of Sparta, wherein the citizens were denied the use of money and the privilege of engaging in trade, undoubtedly influenced Plato in reach­ing this conclusion. If anybody flouted the rules, they were treated as unholy and unrighteous beings. For the best unions the Ruler should intelligently maneuver the draw of lots. Plato’s belief that wealth has a corrupting influence on politics hence the rulers must be deprived of it, to the extent that the words ‘mine’ and ‘yours’ disappear from their vocabulary. The guardians were paid salaries just right enough for their maintenance. Plato’s scheme of communism deprived the guardian class not only of property, but also a private life or a family because family introduced an element of thine and mine. Plato was, in fact, appalled by the casualness of human mating which according to him would not be tolerated in the breeding of any domestic animal. THE COMMUNISM OF PLATO AND MARX by .
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